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Lab Report写作

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Lab Report写作,

实验室报告描述了程序,结果,与实验结论。科学教师对实验报告是非常严格的,所以一定要听从老师的指示

A laboratory report describes the procedure, results, and conclusions of a laboratory experiment. Science instructors are known to be very strict about lab reports, so be sure to follow your teacher’s instructions to the letter.

Task 1: Verify project requirements
Review all the information you have and be sure you can answer the following questions. If you don’t know, ask your teacher.

Task 2: Pre-lab preparation
Every lab report starts with a laboratory experiment (see Science Experiment). Typically, you will conduct your experiment in class with a lab partner or group of partners, under the direction of an instructor. Your first job is to show up for lab class prepared.

1. Before your lab class, read through the assigned experiment. Make sure you understand the goal of the experiment, as well as what happens in each step of the procedure.

2. Predict what will happen during the lab and write down your prediction. This prediction, or hypothesis, is an idea or theory that you believe to be true but requires further investigation.

Example: Your assigned lab experiment looks at the diffusion properties of two substances: starch and glucose. You predict that starch will not diffuse through a dialysis tube into surrounding water but that glucose will diffuse. This is your hypothesis. The goal of the experiment is to support or contradict this hypothesis.
3. Prepare empty tables and charts to use for recording your data during your lab.

Example: Your lab requires you to test for the presence of starch and glucose in water after 0 minutes and 30 minutes. You prepare the following tables to use for recording your data

Beaker 1: water with dialysis tube containing starch
Time (min.):
Starch:
Time (min.):
Starch:

Beaker 2: water with dialysis tube containing glucose
Time (min.):
Glucose:
Time (min.):
Glucose:
4. Conduct your laboratory experiment. Don’t forget to take scrupulous notes and record your observations. (See also: Science Experiment.)

Task 3: Final data
After your experiment is complete, review your data tables. If your tables are sloppy or hard to read, make a neater copy. Include all recorded data; do not alter any of the information.

Example: Inserting raw data from our experiment into the empty shell above transforms notes into a simple but useful chart of findings:

Beaker 1: water with dialysis tube containing starch
Time (min.): 0
Starch: No
Time (min.): 30
Starch: No

Beaker 2: water with dialysis tube containing glucose
Time (min.): 0
Glucose: No
Time (min.): 30
Glucose: Yes
Task 4: Data analysis
Compare your results with other published data.

1. If you haven’t already done so, determine the expected outcomes of your experiment. If your teacher permits it, compare your data with your classmates’ data. You may need to do some research at the library or on the Internet. Your goal is to find out what should have happened during your experiment.

2. Be sure to cite any references you use—that is, jot down exactly where you found relevant information, including the title of the source, its author and publication date, and a page number if appropriate. You’ll need this information if your teacher requires you to include a list of works cited with your report.

Tip: If you’re required to include a list of works cited, take a few minutes now to determine what information about each source you need. For example, does your teacher require you to list your source’s publisher and where it was published? Knowing exactly what you need now will save you the hassle of looking up more information later.
3. Compare your results to the expected results. Are they consistent? If not, how do they differ?

4. Answer any post-laboratory questions assigned by your teacher.

Task 5: Rough Draft
Typically, lab reports are organized into six sections: purpose; hypothesis; materials; procedure; observations, results and data; and conclusions. There are many acceptable formats for lab reports, so be sure to follow any guidelines your teacher provides.

1. Purpose. In one or two sentences, state the goal of the experiment. To give the purpose context, include relevant background information that can serve as an introduction for the lab report.

Example: The purpose of the experiment is to determine how starch and glucose molecules diffuse through a semi-permeable membrane.
2. Hypothesis. State your hypothesis—the original idea or theory that you believed to be true before you conducted your laboratory experiment. Typically, a hypothesis is a single sentence presented as an “if X, then Y” statement, with the “if” based on facts you know to be true and the “then” an educated guess about the lab’s outcome.

Example: If glucose diffuses through a dialysis tube but starch does not diffuse, then starch must be a larger molecule compared to glucose because dialysis tubing is a semi-permeable membrane.
3. Materials. List all the chemicals, tools, equipment, and other apparatus used in your experiment. Be sure to include quantities used. If appropriate, make note of any safety concerns.

4. Procedure. In two to three paragraphs, explain exactly how you performed the experiment. Include every step in the experiment, paying careful attention to detail. The way you conduct your experiment can dramatically affect your results. It’s likely that an educated reader, such as your teacher, will be able to tell if you omit an important detail.

5. Observations, results, data. Use this section to present your results—the data you collected during your experiment, presented in well-labeled tables, graphs, charts, or drawings. Also include a paragraph describing the observations you made during the experiment. What did you see? What did you hear? Did you notice any unusual odors?

6. Conclusions. In paragraph form, summarize your findings and explain what you learned as a result of the investigation. Do your results support or contradict your hypothesis? Why or why not? If appropriate, tell why, or how, what you learned might lead to a new hypothesis—and describe new experiments to test it.

Task 6: Compose list of works cited
If you used additional references during your experiment or while composing your lab report, you’ll need to compose a list of the sources you used in your research. In a lab report, this list is usually a separate page or pages title “Works Cited.”

1. Gather all the source information you jotted down when you were taking notes.

2. Assemble your sources into a single list, alphabetized by author’s last name. Sources that don’t have authors (encyclopedia articles, for example) should be alphabetized by title.

3. Properly format each item in your source list according to an accepted bibliographic style. One common bibliographic style is provided below, but there are many acceptable styles for bibliographies. Be sure to use the format that your teacher specified.

Common Bibliographic Style

This bibliographic style follows the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers, 5th edition, written by Joseph Gibaldi and published in 1999 in New York by the Modern Language Association of America.

Book

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Book Title. Publication Location: Publisher, Publication Year.

Encyclopedia article

"Article Title," Encyclopedia Name. Edition Year ed.

Newspaper, magazine, or journal article

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Article Title" Publication Title Publication Date: page numbers.

Book review

Reviewer Last Name, Reviewer First Name. Rev. of Book Title by Book Author First and Last Name. Publication Location: Publisher, Publication Year.

Film, movie

Movie Title. Dir. Director First and Last Name. Studio or Distributor, Movie Release Date.

Internet source

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Article or Page Title." Site Name. Institution or organization affiliated with the site. <URL>.
Task 7: Final draft
With its charts, tables, and standard scientific format, your lab report reads and looks great. But you’re not done yet. Don’t be undone by failing to apply the finishing touches:

1. Confirm that your lab report follows the guidelines set by your teacher.

2. Read your lab report from start to finish, the way your teacher will. Fix any spelling errors or grammar mistakes.

3. Once you’re satisfied that your report represents your best effort, get a second opinion. Ask a parent or other trusted person to read your report with a critical eye and to give you feedback. Make any changes you think necessary.

4. Read the lab report one last time to make sure you didn’t introduce any new errors in the above step.

5. Finally … hand in your work. Congratulations!

What is the goal of the laboratory experiment?
Are you required to present your data and conclusions in a particular format or style?
When is your lab report due?

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