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AP和SAT常考55个修辞分析术语

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今天小编要给大家分享的是55个修辞分析中的术语,包括大量AP和SAT文章中常考的的修辞手法,不论是在备考准备出国留学的同学还是已经出国留学忙于各种论文作业写作的同学们都用得上,赶紧mark吧!~

Terms Definition Example/Explanation
Analogy

类比

Explaining something complex by comparing it to something more simple. “An amateur playing in a professional game is like an ibex stepping into a lion’s den.”
Argument

论证

The combination of reasons, evidence, etc that an author uses to convince an audience of their position. Too comprehensive a concept for a single example! In effective rhetoric, every phrase serves to further build the argument.
Aristotelian 

appeals

古典说服三元素

Three different methods of appealing to an audience to convince them—ethos, logos, and pathos. See ethos, logos and pathos.
Attitude

态度

The writer’s personal views or feelings about the subject at hand. Difficult to convey in a short example, but something like “the deplorable state of this school” would convey that the author has a negative attitude towards the school.
Audience

读者

Who the author is directing his or her message towards When you create a resume, your audience is potential employers.
Compare and 

contrast

比较和

对比

Discussing the similarities and differences between two things to some persuasive or illustrative purpose. “Hybrid cars have a much smaller carbon footprint than traditional midsize vehicles.”
Connotation

内涵

The implied meaning of a word; words can broadly have positive, negative, or neutral connotations. conscientious = positive connotation,fussy = negative connotation
Context

语境

The extra-textual environment in which the text is being delivered. If I am delivering a congratulatory speech to awards recipients, the immediate context might be the awards presentation ceremony; the broader context might be the purpose or significance of the awards themselves.
Counterargument

反论

The argument(s) against the author’s position. a counterargument might be that this will place a burden on students of a lower socioeconomic status, who must now afford an entire school wardrobe or risk unwanted attention.
Deductive 

reasoning

演绎推理

A form of logical reasoning wherein a general principle is applied to a specific case. If all planets orbit a star, and Theta II is a planet, then it must orbit a star.
Denotation

字面含义

The literal, dictionary-definition meaning of a word. The denotation of “chair” is “a place to sit.”
Diction

遣词

The style of language used; generally tailored to be appropriate to the audience and situation. You might say “What’s up, loser?” to your little brother, but you would probably say “How are you doing today?” to your principal.
Ethos

道德观,可信度

Setting up a source as credible and trustworthy. “Given my PhD in the subject and years of experience in the field” is an appeal to ethos.
Evidence

论据

The information presented meant to persuade the audience of the author’s position. If I were arguing that Anne is a good student, I might reference her straight-A report card and her 1500 SAT score as pieces of evidence.
Figurative 

language

比喻语言

The use of language in a non-literal way; i.e. metaphor, simile, etc. “The sky’s like a jewel box tonight!”
Genre

体裁

The specific type of work being presented. Broader categories include “novel” and “play,” while more specific genres would be things like “personal essay” or “haiku.”
Imagery

意象

Any descriptive language used to evoke a vivid sense or image of something; includes figurative language. “The water was a pearl-studded sea of azure tipped with turquoise.”
Implication

暗示

When something is suggested without being concretely stated. “Watch your wallet around Paul,” implies that Paul is a thief without coming out and saying “Paul is a thief.”
Inductive 

reasoning

归纳推理

Making a generalization based on specific evidence at hand. All of the planets in this solar system orbit a star, so all planets probably orbit stars.
Irony

反语

At the most basic sense, saying the opposite of what you mean; also used to describe situations in which the results of an action are dramatically different than intended. “I do so hope there are more papers to sign,” is something that might be said ironically.
Juxtaposition

对照,比较

Placing two very different things together for effect. “There they stood together, the beggars and the lords, the princesses and the washerwoman, all crowding into the square.”
Logos

逻辑,理论

Appealing to someone’s sense of concrete facts and logic. Citing peer-reviewed scientific studies is an appeal to logos.
Occasion

场合

The reason or moment for writing or speaking. When giving a graduation speech, the occasion is graduation.
Organization

组织

How the different parts of an argument are arranged in a piece of writing or speech. Think about the outlines you write in preparation for drafting an argumentative essay and you’ll have an idea of what organization is.
Pathos

感染力

An Aristotelian appeal. Involves appealing to someone’s emotions. Animal shelters ads with pictures of cute sad animals and dramatic music are using pathos.
Purpose

目的,意图

The author’s persuasive intention. If you are trying to convince your mother you should get a dog, your purpose in addressing an essay on the subject to her would be to convince her that you should get a dog.
Repetition

重复

Re-using a word or phrase repeatedly for effect or emphasis. “We run, and we run, and we run, like rats on a wheel.”
Rhetoric

修辞

The use of spoken or written word (or a visual medium) to convey your ideas and convince an audience. Almost everything is an example of rhetoric!
Rhetorical 

triangle

修辞三角

The relationship between the author, the audience, the text/message, and the context. The author communicates to the reader via the text; and the reader and text are surrounded by context.
Speaker

发言人

The persona adopted by the author to deliver his or her message; may or may not actually be the same person as the author. Similar to the difference between author and narrator in a work of fiction.
Style

风格

The author’s own personal approach to rhetoric in the piece; similar to voice. We might say the Taylor Swift’s songwriting style is straightforward and emotive.
Symbolism

象征意义

Using a symbol to refer to an idea or concept. “Fire” is commonly used a symbol for passion and/or anger.
Syntax

句法

The way sentences are grammatically constructed. “She likes pie,” is syntactically simple. On the other hand, “As it so happened, when Barbara got out of class early she liked to have a piece of pie—key lime or pecan, always—at the corner diner; while she was there she watched the people passing by the window and imagined herself inside each of their lives, riding in their heads for moments and moments until the afternoon was whiled away and she’d become fifty people,” is syntactically complicated.
Synthesis

合成

Combining sources or ideas in a coherent way in the purpose of a larger point. A typical research paper involves synthesizing sources to make a broader point about the topic.
Themes

主题

Overarching ideas or driving premises of a work. Some themes you will probably hear in your high school graduation speech include leaving behind a legacy, moving into the great unknown, becoming an adult, and changing the world.
Tone

语调

The use of stylistic devices to reveal an author’s attitude toward a subject. Only a narrow distinction from attitude. The phrase “the deplorable state of this school” reveals a negative attitude, but the word choice of “deplorable” is part of the author’s tone.
Voice

声音

An author’s unique sound. Similar to style. Think of the way that you can recognize a pop singer on the radio without hearing who it is first.
Bonus Rhetorical Terms
Alliteration

头韵

Using words with the same first letter repeatedly close together in a phrase or sentence. “She purchased the pretty purple parka.”
Allusion

影射,提及

Making a brief reference to the cultural canon—e.g. the Bible, Shakespeare, classical mythology, etc. “Like Eve in the Garden of Eden, George was not good at resisting temptation.”
Anecdote

轶事,故事

Offering a brief narrative episode. This device can serve many functions in a text—for example, introducing an issue, serving as evidence, to illustrate a point, and so on. “When I went to buy my morning coffee, I ran into an old friend. He told me he had won the lottery and he was about to buy a yacht. Two months later I heard he had declared bankruptcy.”
Concession

让步

Agreeing with the opposing viewpoint on a certain smaller point (but not in the larger argument). “While I admit that hybrid cars have higher carbon production costs than conventional automobiles, this is dramatically offset by the much-smaller lifetime carbon footprint of the vehicles.”
Didactic

道德说教

A text with an instructive purpose, often moral. Aesop’s fables are an example of a didactic work.
Euphemism

委婉语

Referring to something with a veiled phrase instead of saying it directly “She let Bob go,” is a euphemism for “she fired Bob.”
Exemplification

例证

Providing examples in service of a point. “The Town Beautification Funds are being sorely misused; the streets are full of litter, the parks are full of broken equipment, and City Hall’s facade is drab and crumbling.”
Hyperbole

夸张

Overstating a situation for humorous or dramatic effect. “My backpack weighs tons!”
Idiom

成语

A commonly used phrase that signifies something very different than its literal meaning. “This costs an arm and a leg!” is an idiom which means “This is very expensive.”
Onomatopoeia

拟声

Using “sound-effect” words (e.g. “clap,” “buzz). “We heard an ominous hiss from the kitchen.”
Paradox

矛盾

A phrase or assertion that appears to contradict itself (but the contradiction itself may have its own meaning). Paradoxical phrases include “dark angel,” “fresh rot,” “blissful hell,” etc.
Parallelism

排比

Repeated structural elements in a sentence. “We went to sea; we went to war; we went to bed.”
Parody

戏仿

Using the form of something to mimic and make fun of it. Weird Al is the master of the musical parody genre.
Personification

拟人

Giving human characteristics to a nonhuman object or idea. “The sun was shining happily today.”
Sarcasm

讽刺

Mockingly stating the opposite of what you mean. Easier to convey in the spoken word than via writing. “Did you come up with that all by yourself?” might be delivered sarcastically after someone delivers a poorly-thought out idea.
Satire

讽刺

A genre of humorous and mocking criticism to expose the ignorance and/or ills of society. Stephen Colbert is a popular modern satirist.
Synecdoche

提喻

Referring to one part of something as a way to refer to the whole. “Ask for her hand” is a synecdoche for marriage; the “hand” stands in for the whole woman.
Understatement

淡化

Deliberately minimizing something, usually for humorous effect. “My mom’s a little bit irritated I crashed the car—I’m grounded for the next twenty-four months.”

这些修辞分析术语大家可以合理运用到自己的英文论文写作当中去,相信会给自己的论文带来更强的可读性。如果在英文论文写作有困难和疑惑的同学欢迎联系网站客服,我们将为您提供最优质最专业和最高效的英文论文代写服务,100%按时交稿,100%原创保证,100%完美售后,欢迎点击右侧客户悬窗进行咨询。

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