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研究主题:CUBA 大学生运动动机的现状调查与对策研究(中英文对照版)

1  研究目的

心理、技术、战术和身体素质是竞技能力的四大因素[1 ] . 中国大学生篮球联赛(简称CUBA) 已成为我国
篮球运动整体发展的重要力量,要想提高CUBA 联赛水平,除了提高技、战术水平外,就是提高心理水平. 有
计划地进行心理训练,能对学生运动员的心理过程和个性心理施以良好的影响,有助于促进和改善在极度紧
张条件下,进行学习、训练和比赛等活动的心智能力[2 ] . 运动训练是为了提高运动员的竞技能力和运动成
绩,在教练员的指导下,专门组织的有计划的体育活动[3 ] . 针对CUBA 大学生的特点和现状,短时期内提高
其技、战术水平很难,更加重要的就是把现有水平发挥出来,以提高比赛质量. 动机研究有利于了解训练和比
赛的心理状态,了解运动员的动机水平. 但要想提高CUBA 大学生的运动动机水平,需要首先了解他们的运
动动机现状. 此前研究多是教练员根据实践经验和训练心得掌握其运动动机,而定量化的研究相对较少. 本
研究认为,定量研究有助于更为精确地把握CUBA 大学生运动动机的状况,从而可以有的放矢地进行培养
和激发,减少工作的盲目性. 而要定量研究运动动机,首先要从定量的测量开始. 有了适度的动机,学生就有
了对训练和比赛的积极态度和主动性,从而有助于提高训练和比赛的质量. 本文对参加第九届CUBA 联赛
的405 名大学生运动动机的现状进行了调查研究,得出结论,为选拔运动员、心理状态评定及有针对性的训
练和管理提供可操作性建议.
2  研究对象与方法
2. 1  研究对象
本研究选取第九届CUBA 中国大学生篮球联赛的405 名运动员作为研究对象,共发放问卷478 份,回
收441 份,废卷36 份,问卷回收率92. 3 % ,剩余有效问卷405 份. 被试平均年龄为20. 78 岁,标准差为2. 51
岁2. 1  研究方法
2. 1. 1  心理测验法
(1) 测量工具. 采用陈华、毛志雄编制的《CUBA 大学生运动动机量表》[4 ] ,该量表根据佩尔蒂埃等人关于运动员成就动机的理论架构建立,是一个2 阶8 因素模型. 包括7 个分量表,即求成就动机、求刺激动机、求
知动机、外部认同动机、外部调节动机、外部内摄性调节动机、无动机,共32 个题项,所有题项均采用5 级
Likert 量表计分. (2)“量表”的同质性信度. 7 个分量表的克隆巴赫α系数均达到0. 80 的可接受水平,说明整
个量表具有较高信度. (3)“量表”的结构效度. 模型的χ2/ df 为4. 81 ,符合Wheaton[5 ]等提出的5 以内的拟合
优度标准. NFI、TL I 和CFI 三项指标在0. 92 – 0. 97 之间,达到Stevens[6 ]提出的0. 90 以上拟合优度较好的
标准,RMSEA 小于0. 10 ,模型与观测数据的拟合度总体上是可以接受的. (4) 数据处理. 使用SPSS13. 0 对
调查数据进行统计分析.
3  结果与分析
3. 1  CUBA 大学生运动动机的现状
根据2 阶8 因素模型对CUBA 大学生的运动动机进行分析,具体做法是,分别计算了7 个分量表的有效
均分及量表总分.
3. 1. 1  7 个分量表的有效均分. 计算方法是将每个分量表所属的题目得分相加,然后除以该分量表的题目
数.
3. 1. 2  量表总分. 将7 个分量表的有效均分相加,即得量表总分,然后再除以7 ,得到量表总分的平均分数.
表2  CUBA大学生运动动机结构有效均分表( n = 405)
分量表量表总分求成就求刺激求知外部认同外部调节内摄性调节无动机
平均数3. 453 3. 554 3. 770 3. 680 3. 173 3. 160 3. 328 3. 506
标准差0. 545 0. 831 0. 620 0. 684 0. 703 0. 582 0. 597 0. 776
由表2 可知: ①运动动机量表总分的平均数为3. 453 ,高于得分的中间点3 分,表明CUBA 大学生运动
动机的总体水平较高.
②求刺激动机的有效均分为3. 770 ,是7 个分量表中的最高得分. 说明CUBA 大学生是为了体验感官的
刺激而参加训练和比赛,在打篮球时他们会感到有激情;同时他们也渴望体验比赛获胜后的愉悦心情等.
③外部调节动机的有效均分为3. 160 ,是7 个分量表中的最低得分. 说明CUBA 大学生参加训练和比赛
不是因为物质上的奖励或其他人的约束,如参加比赛不是为了获得教练的夸奖,而是为了从篮球队的训练和
比赛中获得快乐.
④求成就动机的有效均分为3. 554 ,高于得分的中间点3 分. 说明CUBA 大学生对待训练和比赛的态度
是积极认真的,并努力在比赛中打败对手,取得比赛的胜利.
⑤求知动机的有效均分为3. 680 ,高于中间点3 分. 说明CUBA 大学生对在训练中一些新的运动技巧和
训练方法感兴趣,并通过比赛积累经验.
⑥外部认同动机的有效均分为3. 173 ,略高于得分的中间点3 分. 说明CUBA 大学生认为通过训练和比
赛,可以结识朋友,能够发掘自身其它才能.
⑦内摄性调节动机的有效均分为3. 328 ,高于得分的中间点3 分. 说明CUBA 大学生努力参加训练和比
赛是因为对篮球感兴趣,在训练和比赛中能够达到锻炼身体和消除学习中的紧张情绪的目的.
⑧无动机的有效均分为3. 506 ,高于中间点3 分. 说明CUBA 大学生的无动机水平较高,无动机是一种
动机缺乏,它的消极作用是不言而喻的,处于无动机状态的运动员不认同参加活动的任何积极性解释,甚至
有可能决定终止活动.
由于我国CUBA 大学生运动动机水平的常模没有建立,所以对各动机有效均分的分析没有参照系,难
以对CUBA 大学生的运动动机水平做进一步评价. 因此,本研究通过对不同性别、年龄、训练年限的CUBA
大学生的运动动机进行差异性分析,力求更准确地评价CUBA 大学生的运动动机水平.
3. 2  CUBA 大学生运动动机与性别、年龄、训练年限的关系
3. 2. 1  运动动机总分及7 个分量表得分与年龄、训练年限的关系 由于可将年龄、训练年限看成连续性变
量,因此用回归分析考查运动动机总分及7 个分量表得分与年龄、训练年限的相关关系. 计算时,采用Enter
法,因变量为运动动机量表总分及7 个分量表得分,2 个自变量分别是年龄和训练年限.
①运动动机总分回归分析的结果表明,F(2 ,402) = 1. 664 , p > 0. 05 ;求成就动机回归分析的结果表明,

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A research purpose psychological, technical, tactical and physical fitness are the four factors of competitive ability [1]. Chinese University Basketball Association (abbreviated CUBA) basketball has become an important force in the overall development, in order to improve CUBA league level, in addition to improving technical and tactical levels, is to improve the psychological level there are plans to carry out psychological training, capable of student athletes mental processes and personality psychology impose a positive impact, helping to promote and improve the conditions of extreme stress, learning, training activities and competitions such as mental ability [2]. athletic training is to improve the athlete’s athletic ability and athletic performance, under the guidance of the trainer, specialized organizations planned sports [3] In response to students’ characteristics and status CUBA short period of time to improve their technical and tactical skills make it difficult, even more important is the existing level of play in order to improve the quality of the game. motivation research to understanding the psychological state of training and competition, athletes understand the motivation level, but in order to improve the motivation level CUBA college sports, you need to first understand the current situation of their sport motivation. Earlier studies mostly based on practical experience and training coaches learned to master their sport motivation, while relatively little quantitative research in this study suggests that quantitative studies have help to more accurately grasp the situation CUBA college sport motivation, which can be cultured and motivate targeted to reduce the blindness, while quantitative research to sport motivation, first from the quantitative measurement starts With moderate motivation, Students will have the right training and competition positive attitude and initiative, which helps to improve the quality of training and competition. participating in the ninth article of 405 college students CUBA league sport motivation status was investigated and concluded , for the selection of athletes, mental status assessment and targeted training and management of operational recommendations.

2 Subjects and Methods 2.1 study This study selected ninth CUBA CUBA China’s 405 athletes as an object of study, questionnaires were distributed and 478 were returned of 441 copies, 36 copies of the waste volume, response rate 92.3 %, and the remaining 405 valid questionnaires. were tested an average age of 20.78 years, standard deviation of 2.51
Aged 2.1 Methods 2.1 1.1 psychometric testing (1) measurement tool. Adopt Chen, Mao Zhixiong prepared < > [4], the scale according to Pelletier et al athlete achievement motivation on the theoretical framework of establishment, is a second-order eight-factor model, including seven subscales, namely seeking achievement motivation, seeking to stimulate motivation, knowledge motivation, External recognition motivation, external adjustment motivation, external regulation within the proactive motivation, no motivation, a total of 32 questions of all the questions are used five point Likert scale scoring. (2) ‘scale’ of the Cronbach . 7 @ subscales Cronbach coefficient reached 0.80 an acceptable level, indicating that the entire scale with high reliability. (3) ‘Scale’ construct validity. models χ2 / df is 4. 81, in line with Wheaton [5] and put forward five goodness of fit within the standard. NFI, TL I and CFI three indicators .92 – .97 between, reaching Stevens [6] proposed 0.90 above Goodness of fit better standard, RMSEA less than 0.10, the model fits the data with observations on the whole acceptable. (4) Data processing using SPSS13. 0 for statistical analysis of survey data.
3 Results and Analysis 3. 1 CUBA status of college sport motivation factor model based on second-order eight students on sport motivation CUBA analyze practice, were calculated seven subscales effective sharing and total scores.
3.1. 17 subscales effective sharing. Calculated for each subscale score belongs title summed and then divided by the number of items subscale.
3.1. 2 total score would be seven subscales effective sharing together, that was total score is then divided by 7 to obtain a total score average scores.
Table 2 CUBA college sport motivation structure effectively sharing the table (n = 405)
Subscale total score achievements seek to stimulate demand for knowledge within the external adjustment external recognition proactive regulation no motive Mean 3.453 3.554 3.770 3.680 3.173 3.160 3.328 3.506
Standard deviation 0.545 0.831 0.620 0.684 0.703 0.582 0.597 0.776
Table 2 shows that: ① Sport Motivation Scale total score average of 3.453, higher than the midpoint score 3 points, indicating that college sports CUBA higher overall level of motivation.
② effective demand stimulus motives were divided into 3.770, is a seven-point scale the highest score, indicating CUBA students to experience sensory stimulation and participate in training and competition, while playing basketball they feel passionate; while they also eager to experience joyful mood after winning the game and so on.
③ external adjustment effective motivation were divided into 3.160, is a seven-point scale the lowest score, indicating CUBA students to participate in training and competitions not because of material incentives or other people’s constraints, such as participation in the game is not to get the coach’s praise, but in order from the basketball team’s training and competition to be happy.
④ seeking effective achievement motivation were divided into 3.554, higher than the midpoint score 3 points. Instructions CUBA students attitude towards training and competition are active and serious, and try to defeat the opponent in the race, win games.
⑤ effective knowledge motives were divided into 3.680, 3 points higher than the mid-point, indicating CUBA college students in training some new interest in motor skills and training methods, and gain experience through the game.
⑥ effective external recognition motif were divided into 3.173, slightly above the midpoint score 3 points. Instructions CUBA students think through training and competition, you can meet friends, be able to realize their other talents.
⑦ proactive regulation within the effective motivation were divided into 3.328, higher than the midpoint score 3 points. Instructions CUBA students participate in training and competition is hard because of the basketball interested in training and competition to achieve a workout and eliminate Learning tension purposes.
⑧ no valid motives were divided into 3.506, 3 points higher than the mid-point, indicating CUBA students without a high level of motivation, no motivation is a lack of motivation, its negative effect is self-evident, is no motivational state of the athletes do not agree to participate in the activities of any positive interpretation, there may even decide to terminate the activities.
Since China CUBA college sports motivation level is not established norm, so the motivation for effective sharing of analysis does not frame of reference, it is difficult to CUBA college sports motivation level for further evaluation. Accordingly, this study of different gender, age, training of years CUBA
Students sport motivation for difference analysis, and strive to more accurately assess students’ movement CUBA motivation level.
3. 2 CUBA college sport motivation and gender, age, years of training relationships 3.2. 1 Sports Motivation score and seven subscale scores with age, years of training may be because the relationship between age, years of training as continuous variables Therefore using regression analysis to examine sport motivation score and seven subscale scores with age, the correlation between the training period. calculations, using Enter
France, the dependent variable for the Sport Motivation Scale score and seven subscales, two independent variables were age and years of training.
① Sport Motivation regression analysis showed that the total score, F (2, 402) = 1. 664, p> 0. 05; seek achievement motivation regression analysis showed that,

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