HRM专业主要在于研究人力资源管理包含了组织管理、人事信息管理、招聘管理、劳动合同管理、培训管理、老秦管理等，今天我们主要来谈论的是招聘对于一个企业的意义。结合当前互联网的趋势，研究网络招聘对于企业的意义。作为HRM essay代写经典案例，大家可以做一些参考。关键词：HRM assignment代写，HRM 英文论文代写
Recruitment is about selecting and recruiting employees. The purposes of recruitment help MNE to meet the organization’ everyday jobs, legal and social obligations regarding the composition of the workforce. This increases organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and the long term (Schuler and Huber, 1993). Overall, there is logical and rational approach of the new entering of MNE in new market to the recruitment and selection environment. Analysed by most of the MNE industries, online advertising of recruitment is now a standard part of the recruitment process for them. It has been embraced by technology companies like IBM and cosmetics company L’oreal in China evaluates their prospects from online recruitment (Xinhua News Agency, 2010). An obvious advantage of the online recruitment is cost effective. Global trends have reflected that online advertising is ranked highest when recruiting employees at professional level and below. It believes that the new generation of search technology makes it possible to do a better job hunting in on-line world.
Staffing strategies are an important part of human resource planning to ensure MNEs has the right people in the right jobs at the right time. In past, China suffered from a huge shortage of skilled and professional labour during the time of Chinese economic reforms. According to Wang (2002), the cause of labour shortage during that time is mainly due to the Cultural Revolution which had invaded the education of those born between 1950 and 1965. Secondly, the old labour policies by restriction of Chinese worker’s mobility, which is restricted a person move to other place to seek a new job. Nonetheless, the situation has improved in the past twenty years after the New Labour Law and education system particularly higher education improved. At present, there is no problem is to attract “white collar” employees like Technicians, Engineers, Accountants, Government servants and job related in technical fields because China produced far too many graduates. Refer to China Daily reported, there were 4.8 million graduates in 2008, and went up to 5.45m graduates in 2009. And the year after is minimum 10% increases of graduates in each year. It is estimated that 30% of these will not find jobs appropriate for their educational background (Gross and Corner, 2007). Therefore, China’s new challenge is on how to create enough jobs for these highly educated graduates. Meanwhile, the China Government has to continue attract foreign investments while working on their own branding. Most people still think of China as a country with an inexhaustible supply of cheap labour, but China’s booming coastal cities are now actually facing a shortage of manual labour rather than “white collar” labour (CRIENGLISH.com, 2010). Guangdong, one of the economic powerhouses in South China Province, reported a shortage of half a million workers after the Spring Festival this year as business has skyrocketing for many companies (Xinhua News Agency, 25 March 2010). Hence the provincial authority has adjusted the minimum wage by an average of 21% to attract the labour mainly blue collar. Similarly to other booming regions like coastal cities of Fujian Province, Zhejiang Province, Shanghai City and Beijing City increased their minimum wage for manual labourer by 24 to 30%. In fact, the labour shortage at the booming coastal cities is partly because the west of China, where many of the migrant labourers come from, is also developing. And workers are choosing to stay closer to home because of culturally and dialects differences from coastal cities. Even lower-skilled workers are staying closer to home in China’s inland provinces like Hunan and Sichuan, rather than traveling to coastal province to work for higher wages but they see it as insufficient (Xinhua News Agency, 2010). Critically, recruitment of factories manual labour is becoming an issue for many MNEs in China and employers have to increase their starting pay to attract them.
Accordingly, recent MNEs in manufacturing sector like Nokia and Motorola hiring of blue-collar is getting tougher and tougher in China because of one-child policy adopted by China in 1978. The parents with child born in late 1980 and early1990s are normally at middle-class income groups; as a result they can afford to send their children up to tertiary education. Overtime these groups of children are in the age of 20s now and are more educated and hence do not no longer willing to work in factories. They are far too optimistic about their career options and see no need to work hundreds of miles from their families. Besides, the new generation of workers born in the 1980s and 1990s are aware of their employment rights. They not only demand higher pay but also ask for better opportunities for career development. They also have cultural and spiritual needs.
Training is mainly on-the-job and is seen as a lifelong process. It focuses on employees’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and personalities. These enable staff members to discharge their job related skills and duties professionally and effectively. Training for newly hired employees have to go classroom curriculum like company policies, labor law, company culture, compensation packages, company expectations, company goals, company KPI (Key Performance Index) and of course hands-on equipment training (Kleiman, 1997). Companies in China for example in Electronic Industries spent between 1 to 3% from the overall input cost on training. But the number is gradually going up for a simple reason due to high attrition rate, particularly amongst the younger workers. The attrition rate always a worsening effect on the company as other FDI move in and attract those workers with managerial experience, offering better pay rates and further training opportunities. The rich and wealthy companies are willing to pay handsomely for the experienced staffs of other companies and competitors. As in common, the culture of pinch staffs from one another is common in China.
Despite China’s high adult literacy rate of 94.5% in 2009, the country’s huge labour force faces difficulty in providing the right skills needed to support China’s rapid economic growth (www.euromonitor .com). Research finding has showed the local Chinese graduates do not possess the required skills including computer literacy and foreign languages due to out-of-date university training. In order to cope with skills shortage problem, training programme provided in MNEs suit various needs. They include overseas training programmes, on-site management skills development programmes and language courses (Wang, 2002). In fact, staff Training can help MNEs in China reduce turnover. Young Chinese professionals and graduates are attracted to the training opportunities that foreign companies can offer. Most of Chinese are not well-versed in spoken English language. Many MNEs send their employees for overseas training to enhance themselves in spoken English and true understanding of Western business practices. Besides, it also creates a closer bond between employees and a better understanding of company culture (Ritchie et al., 2001). Rather than that, every company has their own training centre equipped with comprehensive training systems and real-live hand-on training equipments. Many of them have established their own training facilities. These programs have proven effective in building company loyalty and increasing retention. These may cost heavy, but, they cannot do without it. Carrefour China, an example, established a Carrefour China Institute (CCI) in Shanghai in year 2000 to train Chinese managers (China Daily, 12 AUG 2008). Since then, the school has trained about 15,000 managers, and 40,000 employees have attended a range of training programs for self improvement. Regularly, a number of local managers are sent off to Europe for further training to gain greater overseas market knowledge and experience. Wal-Mart China’s regional training centers, also located in Shanghai are other examples of winning internal training programs (Gross and Connor, 2007).
Why retention is important?
The most valuable assets of every MNE are its labor force; retaining them has become a challenge to company management because of varied employee needs.?Employee retention is critically benefited for an organization save the cost of turning over a staff position. For most MNEs in China, recruiting is only half the game. However, the biggest challenge that companies face, by a significant margin, is difficult to keep the talent employees as well as attract the excellent and qualified candidates among the masses. It is gradually increase complexity for companies in China to retain key talent, mainly as the lure of higher salaries affect the Chinese to abandon posts for more lucrative positions. Empirical study showed Chinese employees aged between 25 and 29 shift jobs most frequently, which implies this group of employees is the hardest to retain (www.mercer.com.hk). Hewitt’s 2009/2010 data shows that most Asian companies continue to experience double-digit voluntary turnover rate, particularly China reported the top four markets which is the highest turnover rate after India, Australia and New Zealand (www.hewittassociates.com). Obviously, the high employee’s turnover rate has become the significant issue of most organization. Significantly, it has morale and financial impact on the daily operation of an organization. Impact and challenges contribute to turnover
While many would believe comparatively high turnover rate in China mainly due the competition for talent along with better wages offer from competitors (Byman, 2007). MNES move in and attract those worker with managerial experience, offering better training opportunities (Whiteley et al., 2000).The survey of ‘Employee Retention in China 2006–2007’ sheds light on why employees determine to stay or leave and what organizations can do to stanch the accelerating outward flow of human talent (Howard et al., 2007). Survey respondents included 215 HR professionals and 862 employees in a wide range of organizations operating in China; while 81 % participants’ organizations were multinational. To summaries the findings, the cause of turnover is the availability of better career opportunities elsewhere, particularly the growing entry of new MNES each year. HR professionals from survey described that competitors presenting a better salaries and sufficient compensation, but also noted the impact on retention of regional salary differences between China’s coastal and inland cities (Howard et al., 2007). Not surprising, organizations that face high employee turnover often suffer negative residual effects among remaining employees. In short, the misunderstanding of employees’ needs is difficult for a company to retain and prevent turnovers.However, successful companies in China rely on a relatively small group of key talent to drive the business forward (Speth and Doeringer, 2006). The key strategy of MNEs applied to retain the talents further discuss in next paragraph.
A high rate of turnover usually forces an organization to face difficult dilemmas. More and more people change numerous jobs within a year rather than choose to grow in one; and this has also been a problem for corporate management. Employee turnover demands management attention because it incurs costs in rehiring, training, placement, and motivating employees. However,?high employee satisfaction with working style of an organization should bode well for retention (Howard et al., 2007). Retaining often focus on opportunities for employers to promote the right employees or tangible rewards like compensation or remuneration based on appropriate performance appraisal (Whiteley et al., 2000). For instance, a comprehensive reward system can be a kind of rewarding either pay for hours worked or pay for pieces of work completed. Besides, most companies have retention bonuses to retain the key staffs and key talents. Some of the retention programs are sponsor for further educations, overseas training, stocks option, career advancement opportunities. Of cause conditionally, the employees who took the programs like further educations or overseas training have to be borne with company for number of years pending the amount spent. Commonly, talented employees would be less likely to leave the company ones if they are well compensated and motivated (Hong & Chao, 2007 p. 217). However, sometimes retention method was inconsistent with its value in specific instances. Therefore, organizations should aware to these specialized occasions when developing strategies for retaining talent. Cross-cultural expatriate’s management
“China is the top expatriates destination followed by the U.S., UK, Singapore and Switzerland, survey reveals” (kwintessential.co.uk, 2009). But, predicament comes from greatest challenges of expatriate’s failure grown concern for many multinationals in the evaluation of managerial performance (Leunga and Kwong, 1999). Evidence, empirical figures finds Western expatriate failures in China to range as wide as 25% to 70% (Harzing, 2002; Selmer, 2002). Significantly, such high failure rates potential impact business relationships between Western expatriates and Chinese organizations. Whereby, a financial loss can be inferred, due to damage to business relationships as a result of low commitment levels commited by expatriate (Lund &Barker, 2004; Harzing, 2002). Lund &Barker (2004) further cited such financial loss is estimated to range from US$250,000 to US$ 1,000,000 per expatriate. Further, Goodall & Warner cited in Black (1988), 2007) showed there is high percentage up to 40% of expatriate managers terminated their foreign assignments early of their poor performance. Eventually it represents the organizational failure to manage human resources internationally (moinul.com, 2007). However, there might be several reasons why many expatriates fail to deliver the objectives. Research found that (Hays, 1974; Feng& Pearson, 1999), they are three exact dimensions have been recognized as related with their overseas performance: the environment, the task, and the individual. This is due to expatriates are often faced with radically unfamiliar cultures, politics, language differences, length of assignment, and legal systems (Rahim, 1983; Feng& Pearson, 1999). Sometimes, there is not inability from expatriates, but culture conflict affect local Chinese managers are less likely than their foreign counterpart to handle independent decision making responsibilities (Leunga & Kwong, 1999). Chinese and expatriate managers may have different principles in judging within their job scope as well as criteria used for performance evaluation.
Management style of Culture differences -MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS IN CROSS-CULTURAL
Culture is an important contextual issue in employee’s management study. In general, management is closely related to the culture (Drucker, 2003). According to Wang (2002), the communist style of education and the long history of China differentiate the cultures of organization management between Mainland China from those of Asian countries, American and European cultures. This is especially true for MNEs who have operations on a global scale and employ people of different countries, ethical and cultural backgrounds. Cultural difference can have a direct impact on individual managerial effectiveness (Goodall & Warner, 2007). It affects the motivation and satisfaction manager as well as staff; and effectiveness of key organizational systems such as recruitment, training, performance evaluation and rewards (Goodall & Warner, 2007). Sometimes cultural sensitivity drove the management effort since the different in culture of management concept. Take the case study of Japanese T.L. Electronics Company based in China for example, the Chinese workers commented the style of Japanese management is not conductive their expectation (Whiteley et al., 2000). It is generally assumed the HR management approach is due to remarkable cultural difference between the parent country and the host country. In fact, a MNE should focus on a combination of global integration and local adaptation, allowing its employees to “think globally, act locally”. To ensure global thinking, the global company has to encourage the local employees to accept the corporate culture and values. For instance, Chinese employee who employed in the Western setting is encouraged to learn the Western-style organization management and communication skills. Meanwhile, operations of the Company have to adjust to comply with the legal requirements and services that reflect the Chinese culture. Cultural different affect the motivation and satisfaction both manager as well as staff; and effectiveness of key organizational systems such as recruitment, training, performance evaluation and rewards
For foreign companies operating in China, the difficulties are magnified by the talent shortage for future leader, particularly of managers and executives. For example, approximately 60% of companies surveyed in Hewitt’s 2003 Best Employers in China study reported shortages in leadership skills (www. hewittassociates.com). It further reported many talented executive have been lured away from an MNE job into a well-paid position with a leading Chinese company. For many foreign investors, developing future leaders tends to be very difficult in China mainly of rapid turnover. A good example is the America firm Leshan-phoenix Semiconductor Cooperation, in Sichuan Province, struggling with annual turnover rates of their local managers of 20% or more (onsemiconductor.com, 2010). This is mainly because demand for strong leadership executives far exceeds supply; they are tempted to leave their current position for higher pay and a bigger title (Meridian Resources, 2007). In fact, a competent leader helps multi-national corporations work effectively in the Chinese workplace. As foreign company enter fully into China marketplace, it forming competing domestically with local corporations. High turnover makes planned, consistent leadership development extremely difficult.