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Harvard Reference引用的一些要点详解

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reference0说起Reference,那可是种类多多,例如常用的OSCOLAR,Harvard, Vancouver, MHRA, RSC & APA.

不同的Reference,在格式上都会有略微的不同。

所以在生成Reference之前,一定要听好被老师“撂牌子”的格式名称哦!!
今天我们来重点介绍一些Harvard要求,引文北美学校这个格式使用的是最多的,下面来卡看Harvard格式文中以及reference list里的引用格式。
* Citing Your Sources In The Text 
1. 作者为1-2人
author(s)’s surname + the year of publication
e.g. It has been argued by Harris (2001) that the main considerations are…
      (Cullingworth and Nadin 2007)
2. 作者为3人及以上:
在第一个作者名字后,使用缩写et al. (注意后面的“.”) 
e.g. Tayler et al. (2003)(Tayler et al. 2003).
3. 在文中第二次引用同一篇source:
用ibid代替括号内的作者名字及年份
e.g. Consensus is an important issue, but it can be hard to encourage (ibid).
4. 总结或者改写source中的一段或一章内容:
在给出作者名字、出版年份后,还必须指明页码范围
e.g. It has been argued (Harris 2001, pp. 20-21) that the main considerations are the scope ofthe project, the cost and the duration of the work.
* The Reference List
⚠ *要包含在文中所有被引用的sources;
     *以作者名字首字母为准,从A-Z依次排序;
     *reference之间要空行;
     *在每个reference前不要使用数字标号;
     *title 要斜体 (划线__部分需要斜体);
     *每个reference首字母都要大写。
Different Types of Sources
1. Books:
Author. (Date). Title: subtitle. Place of publication: Publisher.
e.g. Andrews, J. R. et al. 2012. Physical rehabilitation of the injuredathlete. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.
2. Journal Articles:
Author. (Date).Title of article. Title of journal, volume number (issue number), pages.
e.g. Ang, L. and Taylor, B. 2005. Managing customer profitability using portfolio matrices. Journal of Database Marketing and Customer Strategy Management 12(5), pp. 298-304.
3. Electronic journal article (PDF):
Author. (Date). Title. [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher (if known). Full date you retrieved the information. Full URL.
e.g. Merchant, A.T. 2007. Diet, physical activity, and adiposity in children in poor and rich neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional comparison.Nutrition Journal [Online] 6. Available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/pdf/1475-2891-6-1.pdf [Accessed: 10 May 2007].
4. Report:
Title of organisation. (Date). Title of report: subtitle. Place: Publisher.
e.g. European Commission. 2004. First report on the implementation ofthe internal market strategy 2003-2006. Luxembourg: Office forOfficial Publications of the European Communities.
5. Websites:
Author. (Date created/last updated). Title of webpage[Online]. Full date you retrieved the information. FullURL.
e.g. Thompson, B. 2006. Why the net should stay neutral [Online].Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4594498[Accessed: 10 May 2007].
6. Newspaper articles:
Author. (Full date). Title of article. Title of newspaper, pages.
e.g.Benoit, B. 2007. G8 faces impasse on global warming. FinancialTimes 29 May 2007, p. 9.
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